index - Laboratoire d'Excellence Dispositif de Recherche Interdisciplinaire sur les Interactions Hommes-Milieux Access content directly

The Observatoires Hommes-Milieux (OHM) system was designed as a tool to encourage, support and organise inter-disciplinarity. It is dedicated to the study and understanding of highly anthropised socio-ecosystems affected by sudden changes (socio-ecosystemic crises) that are increasingly taking place as part of Global Change (ecological, economic, social) or are its consequences. Through its research and the dissemination of its findings to scientific communities and society at large, it helps to promote sustainable development.
 
Since 2007, this OHM system has been designed and developed within the CNRS EDD, then INEE. It now comprises 13 OHMs, each focusing on its own specific area, 6 of which are located in metropolitan France, 2 overseas France and 5 abroad.
Since 2012, the LabEx DRIIHM (Interdisciplinary Research on Human-Milieu Interactions) has been responsible for its governance and for developing and coordinating cross-disciplinary activities.
 
 
The aim of this collection is to bring together all the scientific publications produced as part of projects developed in the OHMs and supported by LabEx DRIIHM, while at the same time making it possible to:

It lists all the publications contained in the sub-collections of the 13 OHMs that you can find via the tabs above.

 

View the collection

 

 

 

Instructions for depositors

What should be submitted to HAL?

  • The full text of articles published in peer-reviewed or non-peer-reviewed journals, after checking the terms of deposit granted by the publisher.

  • The full text of conference papers

  • At the very least, bibliographic references for all research products

How to submit to HAL?

  • Create your account or log in with your SciencesConf.org login

  • Check the rights granted by scientific journals

  • Tutorials

Attention

To ensure that publications are properly identified, please comply with the signature rules for scientific publications of LabEx DRIIHM :
  • Submissions for publications resulting from a DRIIHM-funded project must mention the LabEx as ANR-11-LABX-0010 in the "ANR Project" field on the "Metadata" page.

  • The repository must be "stamped" to the relevant OHM subcollection(s) either manually by the owner(s) of the subcollection(s) or by adding the keyword(s): "OHM(i) <Name of OHM>" (see "Further information").

  • The deposit must be made in agreement with the co-authors and in compliance with the publishers' policy.

  • As submitting your results to HAL constitutes a public disclosure, make sure beforehand that these research results are not subject to confidentiality obligations, or that they are not the subject of a procedure underway for the filing of a patent.

Further information

You will find below, for the LabEx and the OHM, a link to the descriptive sheet, the address of the site and the keyword to be added to the notice:
 
LabEx DRIIHM : https://www.driihm.fr/
Bassin Minier de Provence : https://www.ohm-provence.org/ -> OHM Bassin Minier de Provence
Oyapock (Guyane française) : https://ohm-oyapock.in2p3.fr/ -> OHM Oyapock
Estarreja (Portugal) : https://ohm-estarreja.in2p3.fr/ -> OHMi Estarreja
Tessékéré (Sénégal) : https://ohmi-tessekere.in2p3.fr/ -> OHMi Tessekere
Pyrénées-Haut Vicdessos : http://w3.ohmpyr.univ-tlse2.fr/ -> OHM Pyrenees
Vallée du Rhône : https://ohm-vallee-du-rhone.fr/ -> OHM Vallee du Rhone
Littoral Méditerranéen : https://www.ohm-littoral-mediterraneen.fr/-> OHM Littoral Mediterraneen
Nunavik (Canada) : https://ohmi-nunavik.in2p3.fr/ -> OHMi Nunavik
Pays de Bitche : https://ohm-pays-de-bitche.in2p3.fr/ -> OHM Pays de Bitche
Pima County (USA) : https://ohmi-pima-county.in2p3.fr/ -> OHMi Pima County
Littoral Caraïbe : https://ohm-littoral-caraibe.in2p3.fr/ -> OHM Littoral Caraibe
Patagonia-Bahia Exploradores (Chili) : https://ohm-bahia-exploradores.in2p3.fr/ -> OHMi Bahia Exploradores
Fessenheim : https://ohm-fessenheim.fr/ -> OHM Fessenheim

 

 

Latest articles

Although global plastic distribution is at the heart of 21st century environmental concerns, little information is available concerning how organic plastic additives contaminate freshwater sediments, which are often subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Here, sediment core samples were collected in the Rhone and the Rhine watersheds (France), dated using 137Cs and 210Pbxs methods and analysed for nine phthalates (PAEs) and seven organophosphate esters (OPEs). The distribution of these organic contaminants was used to establish a chronological archive of plastic additive pollution from 1860 (Rhine) and 1930 (Rhone) until today. Sediment grain size and parameters related to organic matter (OM) were also measured as potential factors that may affect the temporal distribution of OPEs and PAEs in sediments. Our results show that OPE and PAE levels increased continuously in Rhone and Rhine sediments since the first records. In both rivers, ∑PAEs levels (from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 487.3 ± 27.0 ng g−1 dry weight (dw) ± standard deviation and from 4.6 ± 1.3 to 65.2 ± 11.2 ng g−1 dw, for the Rhine and the Rhone rivers, respectively) were higher than ∑OPEs levels (from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 79.1 ± 13.7 ng g−1 dw and from 0.6 ± 0.1 to 17.8 ± 2.3 ng g−1 dw, for Rhine and Rhone rivers, respectively). In both rivers, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant PAE, followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), while tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the most abundant OPE. No relationship was found between granulometry and additives concentrations, while organic matter helps explain the vertical distribution of PAEs and OPEs in the sediment cores. This study thus establishes a temporal trajectory of PAEs and OPEs contents over the last decades, leading to a better understanding of historical pollution in these two Western European rivers.

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The quantification of microplastic (MP) pollution in rivers is often constrained by a lack of historical data on a multi-decadal scale, which hinders the evaluation of public policies. In this study, MP contents and trends were analyzed in dated sediment cores sampled upstream and downstream of a large metropolis, in environmental deposits that exhibited consistent sedimentation patterns from the 1980s to 2021. After a thorough sedimen- tological analysis, MPs were quantified in samples by micro Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (μFTIR imaging) and a density separation and organic matter digestion procedure. Microplastics recorded in the up- stream core are relatively ubiquitous all along the dated sequence. The results also confirmed a sever increase of microplastics levels in the downstream core, by one order of magnitude, and an increase of polymer types. Polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene represent ubiquitous contamination and were predominant at the two stations, whereas polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene were suspected to be abundant at the downstream station, but were not detected at the upstream station. Their presence could be linked to local contamination from specific industrial sources that manufactured and utilized these polymers. Surprisingly, in the downstream station sediment has recorded a relative improvement in polymers associated with industrial sources since the 2000s and, to a lesser extent, for ubiquitous ones since the 2010s. This trend of mitigation diverges from that of global assessments, that assume uncontrolled MP pollution, and suggest that European Union wastewater policy and regulation on industrial discharges have positively influenced water quality, and certainly also on MPs. However, the accumulation of microplastics remains high in recent deposits and raises the emerging concern of the long-term management of these reservoirs.

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Peatlands are considered the most efficient ecosystem for long-term storage of atmospheric carbon (C). However, reasons for variations in C accumulation within peatlands remain largely unexplained. Using a comprehensive multi-level approach combining soil-atmosphere C exchanges, microbial extracellular enzyme activities, and genome-resolved cellular and viral metagenomics, we endeavored to decipher the microbial determinants and their role in C dynamics in the bog and fen of a European peatland. Overall, the bog exhibited a higher C content and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Despite contrasting geochemical conditions, these differences were not explained by environmental parameters nor the vegetation. Metagenomic analyses revealed varying microbial community composition, the bog being less diverse and dominated by Acidobacteriota and the fen comprising five predominant phyla (Crenarcheota, Chloroflexota, Proteobacteria, Desulfobacterota and Acidobacteriota). Both bog and fen microbial communities were stable between spring and summer. Yet, similar CO2 emissions were recorded in both bog and fen, along with similar organic matter (OM) decomposition microbial activities and potential. Ultimately, the bog harbored significantly more viruses than the fen. Most intriguingly, these viruses were predicted to target Acidobacteriota, the phyla displaying the highest OM-degrading capacity in the bog. By impairing the activity of the dominant players in OM degradation, viruses might have a significant role in C dynamics in the bog over time. In addition, we propose that low microbial diversity limited cross-feeding opportunities in the bog, further limiting C degradation. Taken together, this study deciphers the role of microbial communities driving C accumulation in peatlands and, consequently, peatland ecosystem functioning.

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Vanadium (V) concentrations in organisms are usually very low. To date, among animals, only some urochordate and annelid species contain very high levels of V in their tissues. A new case of hyper-accumulation of V in a distinct animal phylum (Porifera), namely, the two homoscleromorph sponge species Oscarella lobularis and O. tuberculata is reported. The measured concentrations (up to 30 g/kg dry weight) exceed those reported previously and are not found in all sponge classes. In both Oscarella species, V is mainly accumulated in the surface tissues, and in mesohylar cells, as V(IV), before being partly reduced to V(III) in the deeper tissues. Candidate genes from Bacteria and sponges have been identified as possibly being involved in the metabolism of V. This finding provides clues for the development of bioremediation strategies in marine ecosystems and/or bioinspired processes to recycle this critical metal.

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This contribution points out that while the importance of hydrologic, geomorphic, ecological, temporal, and socio-cultural connectivity in the functioning of hydrosystems has been acknowledged in three dimensions (longitudinal, lateral, and vertical), vertical connectivity has often been overlooked. Drawing on a multidisciplinary literature review, the authors aim to highlight the socio-cultural connectivity of subsurface flows and aquifers as a crucial factor for socio-hydrosystem understanding and management. The piece builds on emergent literature which underscores how groundwater, shallow groundwater, and the hyporheic zone are coproduced by nature and society through time. Furthermore, the review explores how verticality has become an important heuristic dimension at the intersection of the environmental and social sciences, and there has been a particular focus on the hyporheic zone to look at how notions of interstitiality and (in)visibility can be better integrated with socio-hydrosystem science and management. Finally, the paper calls for further research to integrate the vertical dimension of hydrosystems into more comprehensive socio-hydrological frameworks, which remain, at times, empirically and theoretically weak on questions of social power, even if they do incorporate aspects of political systems. Especially as societies' relationships to groundwater may be at the heart of climate change adaptation strategies, greater consideration of the social connectivity to subflows is a necessary direction for sustainable water resource management and scholarship.

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Socio-ecological research enlists inter- and transdisciplinarity to address complex environmental issues. Yet the “socio-ecological system” concept can be interpreted in many different ways. A characterization of the diverse practices in socio-ecological research could facilitate dialogue between researchers about the possible conceptual and ethical approaches. In this study, we investigated if a detailed analysis of scientific articles would reveal the nature and course of a socio-ecological research network, and the research angle of its members. The example we used was the Rhône River Long-Term Socio-Ecological Journal Pre-proof Research (LTSER) platform in France. We combined a multivariate analysis of a reading grid of publications by Rhône River LTSER researchers and a textual analysis of the scientific narratives. The publications were from a 10-year period and corresponded to those used in a recent international comparative analysis of LTSER platforms. The analysis revealed that the research was dominated by a biophysical approach, with a progressive increase in social aspects. The emergence of a transdisciplinary approach, co-constructed with operational partners, was also shown. The research conducted by the Rhône River LTSER was grounded in the context of managing a river with strong anthropic influences and interests, and the scientific approach aimed to provide knowledge for guiding decisions. Little reference was made in the publications to socio-ecological conceptual frameworks. Beyond the example of this LTSER platform, we identified indicators for describing the degree of inter- and transdisciplinarity and the different perceptions of socio-ecological systems. The narrative analysis revealed the angle of the research approach; this method could be used in future studies for a comparison of the diverse approaches of multiple research groups.

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Marinas are semi-enclosed environments characterised by reduced hydrodynamic energy, high sedimentation rates, and reduced oxygen levels. The ongoing development of activities and infrastructure construction are leading to deterioration in the quality of coastal aquatic environments, creating environmental risks. Trace metal elements (TMEs) and organotins are significant contaminants, prompting this study to evaluate the added value of spatiotemporal monitoring compared to one-time sediment assessments. Two Mediterranean harbours, Port Camargue (PC) and Port Carnon (C), differing in morphology and size, were monitored for a year with regular water sampling, focusing on TMEs and organotins. Sediment contamination, notably in the technical zone, revealed concentrations of Cu (309 and 1210 mg kg-1 for C and PC, respectively), Zn (242 and 425 mg kg-1 for C and PC, respectively), and tributyltin (TBT) (198 and 4678 µg (Sn) kg-1 for C and PC, respectively) surpassing the effect range-median (ERM), while other marina stations generally stayed below this threshold. Spatiotemporal water monitoring highlighted concentrations above environmental quality standards (EQS) at all stations of the larger marina. This exceedance was systematic for Cu and Zn in all samples, ranging respectively between 2.54 and 37.56 µg (Sn) L-1 and 0.63 and 33.48 µg (Sn) L-1. A notable temporal dynamic for TBT and Cu was also observed. Conversely, the open marina, connected to the open sea, rarely exhibited concentrations above EQS in water, despite sediment concentrations occasionally exceeding ERM values. This underscores that risk assessment in these ecosystems cannot rely solely on sediment characterisation.

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Ports are essential facilities for the functioning of our globalised economy, as well as for the territories they supply. Monitoring port activity is therefore a relevant way of assessing the economic intensity they generate, and enabling regional analyses of their relative weight, their areas of activity and their development trajectories. However, comparative analysis of port activity is hampered by the variable quality and uneven distribution of the data produced by port authorities, which is far from being homogeneous, which makes comparative approaches difficult. In this paper, using vessel positioning data obtained through the Automatic Identification System (AIS), we propose a method for the extraction, quantification and qualification of port calls. We apply this method to a dataset in the Caribbean, covering the whole of 2019. Our method was able to describe the activity of 101 ports (in the sense of port areas) in the Lesser Antilles, by identifying 171,626 calls and their duration, by 5,907 ships of various type, size, age or flag. A comparison with the statistics published by a number of reference ports authorities and by the UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) shows that the median difference of computed port calls is about 11%, thus validating the proposed approach. By qualifying the type of vessel that passes through port waters, according to its characteristics, this approach based on the number of calls makes it possible to observe the capabilities and the infrastructural quality deployed in the ports in terms of vessels, and, stemming from it, to develop the hypothesis of port vulnerability, that is a perspective for our future work.

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Abstract Lynchets are ridges formed by erosion and sediment accumulation downstream of agricultural plots and offer valuable insights into past agricultural activity. These microtopographies cover vast areas and serve as indicators of historical changes in land use. As a result, their ubiquity across Europe makes them particularly interesting. In this study, we propose a geoarchaeological approach to analyze six lynchets, four in the Vosges Mountains and two on the Lorraine Plateau (France). The lynchets can be considered soil archives with no stratigraphic organization or chronological sequence from bottom to top, making it difficult to determine the age of the lynchets and identify changes in land use over time. To this end, we propose the analysis of historical and geo‐historical archives combined with the “pedosedimentary” archives of lynchets through charcoal identification and dating combined with near‐infrared spectroscopy to determine the age, vegetation, and past land use changes associated with lynchet landscapes. By combining these multiple data sources, we are better able to show the chronological development of these ancient agricultural systems and uncover valuable information on landscape history. Charcoal dating suggests a higher frequency of fires from the Middle Ages. The dating aligns with the regional dynamics of anthropogenic fires, indicating a potential use of fire for cultural purposes. We also demonstrate the difficulty of extrapolating the dating of a lynchet to the entire lynchet system. Our results highlight the difficulties of interpreting the formation and dating of lynchets and the lynchet system on the sole basis of charcoal analysis. However, we highlight the value of applying pedoanthracology to lynchets to determine the dynamics of land use change in former fields.

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The main objective of the study was to investigate the diversity of the woody stratum of the vegetation in intercommunity rangelands in the department of Koungheul based on an ecological inventory using vegetation surveys. The results indicate a rich flora of 70 species divided into 54 genera and 27 families where Ceasalpiniaceae and Rubiaceae are dominant (5 genera each). They are followed by Combretaceae and Euphorbiacea (4 genera each) and by Capparaceae, Fabaceae and Mimosaceae (3 genera for each family). But at the specific level, it is the Combretaceae which dominates with 10 species and Rubiaceae (7 species). It is more representative at the level of the rural community of Lour Esacale. The different values of vegetation parameters from one site to another indicate variability in community rangeland management practices. The woody stand, dominated by small Combretaceae, shows a relatively stable level of organization with an average equitability of about 45% for the two rural communities studied. Species such as Cordyla pinnata, Sclerocarya birrea, Adansonia digitata and Sterculia setigera contributed strongly to the basal and aerial cover of the overall stand. The regeneration of the stand is very good (about 85% on average) but it represents very few species, especially of the Combretaceae family. This shows a tendency to a progressive loss of species richness in the woody stratum.

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