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The LPT is based at the University of Toulouse. It has been founded in 1991 and its administrative structure was established in 2003. Before 2003, researchers where rassembled in the Group of Theoretical Physics. This group was hosted by the Laboratoire de Physique Quantique (now LCPQ).

The LPT is member of FeRMI (Fédération de recherche Matière et Interactions).

 

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In this article, we investigate meandric systems having one shallow side: the arch configuration on that side has depth at most two. This class of meandric systems was introduced and extensively examined by I. P. Goulden, A. Nica, and D. Puder [Int. Math. Res. Not. IMRN 2020 (2020), 983–1034]. Shallow arch configurations are in bijection with the set of interval partitions. We study meandric systems by using moment-cumulant transforms for non-crossing and interval partitions, corresponding to the notions of free and Boolean independence, respectively, in non-commutative probability. We obtain formulas for the generating series of different classes of meandric systems with one shallow side by explicitly enumerating the simpler, irreducible objects. In addition, we propose random matrix models for the corresponding meandric polynomials, which can be described in the language of quantum information theory, in particular that of quantum channels.

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We introduce and study a random matrix model of Kolmogorov-Zakharov turbulence in a nonlinear purely dynamical finite-size system with many degrees of freedom. For the case of a direct cascade, the energy and norm pumping takes place at low energy scales with absorption at high energies. For a pumping strength above a certain chaos border, a global chaotic attractor appears with a stationary energy flow through a Hamiltonian inertial energy interval. In this regime, the steady-state norm distribution is described by an algebraic decay with an exponent in agreement with the Kolmogorov-Zakharov theory. Below the chaos border, the system is located in the quasi-integrable regime similar to the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory and the turbulence is suppressed. For the inverse cascade, the system rapidly enters a strongly nonlinear regime where the weak turbulence description is invalid. We argue that such a dynamical turbulence is generic, showing that it is present in other lattice models with disorder and Anderson localization. We point out that such dynamical models can be realized in multimode optical fibers.

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A model of magnetic universe based on nonlinear electrodynamics has been introduced by Kruglov. This model describes an early inflation era followed by a radiation era. We show that this model is related to our model of universe based on a quadratic equation of state. We discuss two quantitatively different models of early universe. In Model I, the primordial density of the universe is identified with the Planck density. At $t=0$, the universe had the characteristics of a Planck black hole. During the inflation, which takes place on a Planck timescale, the size of the universe evolves from the Planck length to a size comparable to the Compton wavelength of the neutrino. If we interpret the radius of the universe at the end of the inflation (neutrino's Compton wavelength) as a minimum length related to quantum gravity and use Zeldovich's first formula of the vacuum energy, we obtain the correct value of the cosmological constant. In Model II, the primordial density of the universe is identified with the electron density as a consequence of nonlinear electrodynamics. At $t=0$, the universe had the characteristics of an electron. During the inflation, which takes place on a gravitoelectronic timescale, the size of the universe evolves from the electron's classical radius to a size comparable to the size of a dark energy star of the stellar mass. If we interpret the radius of the universe at the begining of the inflation (electron's classical radius) as a minimum length related to quantum gravity and use Zeldovich's second formula of the vacuum energy, we obtain the correct value of the cosmological constant. This provides an accurate form of Eddington relation between the cosmological constant and the mass of the electron. We also introduce a nonlinear electromagnetic Lagrangian that describes simultaneously the early inflation, the radiation era, and the dark energy era.

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Hedin's equations provide an elegant route to compute the exact one-body Green's function (or propagator) via the self-consistent iteration of a set of non-linear equations. Its first-order approximation, known as $GW$, corresponds to a resummation of ring diagrams and has shown to be extremely successful in physics and chemistry. Systematic improvement is possible, although challenging, via the introduction of vertex corrections. Considering anomalous propagators and an external pairing potential, we derive a new self-consistent set of closed equations equivalent to the famous Hedin equations but having as a first-order approximation the particle-particle (pp) $T$-matrix approximation where one performs a resummation of the ladder diagrams. This pp version of Hedin's equations offers a way to go systematically beyond the $T$-matrix approximation by accounting for low-order pp vertex corrections.

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In this paper, we present a new application of group theory to develop a systematical approach to efficiently compute the Schmidt numbers. The Schmidt number is a natural quantification of entanglement in quantum information theory, but computing its exact value is generally a challenging task even for very concrete examples. We exhibit a complete characterization of all orthogonally covariant k-positive maps. This result generalizes earlier results by Tomiyama (Linear Algebra Appl 69:169–177, 1985). Furthermore, we optimize duality relations between k-positivity and Schmidt numbers under group symmetries. This new approach enables us to transfer the results of k-positivity to the computation of the Schmidt numbers of all orthogonally invariant quantum states.

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