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Journal Articles Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A Year : 2022

Euclid preparation - I. The Euclid Wide Survey

R. Scaramella , J. Amiaux (1) , Y. Mellier (1, 2) , C. Burigana (3) , C. Carvalho (4) , J.-C. Cuillandre (5) , A. da Silva , A. Derosa , J. Dinis , E. Maiorano , M. Maris , I. Tereno , R. Laureijs , T. Boenke , G. Buenadicha (6) , X. Dupac (7) , L. Gaspar Venancio , P. Gómez-Álvarez , J. Hoar (6) , J. Lorenzo Alvarez , G. Racca , G. Saavedra-Criado , J. Schwartz , R. Vavrek , M. Schirmer , H. Aussel , R. Azzollini , V. Cardone , M. Cropper , A. Ealet (8) , B. Garilli , W. Gillard (9) , B. Granett , L. Guzzo , H. Hoekstra , K. Jahnke , T. Kitching , T. Maciaszek , M. Meneghetti , L. Miller , R. Nakajima , S. Niemi , F. Pasian , W. Percival , S. Pottinger , M. Sauvage , M. Scodeggio , S. Wachter , A. Zacchei , N. Aghanim , A. Amara , T. Auphan (9) , N. Auricchio , S. Awan , A. Balestra , R. Bender , C. Bodendorf , D. Bonino , E. Branchini , S. Brau-Nogue , M. Brescia , G. Candini , V. Capobianco , C. Carbone , R. Carlberg , J. Carretero , R. Casas , F. Castander , M. Castellano , S. Cavuoti , A. Cimatti , R. Cledassou (10) , G. Congedo , C. Conselice , L. Conversi , Y. Copin (8) , L. Corcione , A. Costille , F. Courbin , H. Degaudenzi , M. Douspis , F. Dubath , C. Duncan , S. Dusini , S. Farrens , S. Ferriol (8) , P. Fosalba , N. Fourmanoit (8) , M. Frailis , E. Franceschi , P. Franzetti , M. Fumana , B. Gillis , C. Giocoli , A. Grazian , F. Grupp , S. Haugan , W. Holmes , F. Hormuth , P. Hudelot , S. Kermiche (9) , A. Kiessling , M. Kilbinger , R. Kohley , B. Kubik (8) , M. Kümmel , M. Kunz , H. Kurki-Suonio , O. Lahav , S. Ligori , P. Lilje , I. Lloro , O. Mansutti , O. Marggraf , K. Markovic , F. Marulli , R. Massey , S. Maurogordato (11) , M. Melchior , E. Merlin , G. Meylan , J. Mohr , M. Moresco , B. Morin , L. Moscardini , E. Munari , R. Nichol , C. Padilla , S. Paltani , J. Peacock , K. Pedersen , V. Pettorino , S. Pires , M. Poncet , L. Popa , L. Pozzetti , F. Raison , R. Rebolo , J. Rhodes , H.-W. Rix , M. Roncarelli , E. Rossetti , R. Saglia , P. Schneider , T. Schrabback , A. Secroun (9) , G. Seidel , S. Serrano , C. Sirignano , G. Sirri , J. Skottfelt , L. Stanco , J. Starck , P. Tallada-Crespí , D. Tavagnacco , A. Taylor , H. Teplitz , R. Toledo-Moreo , F. Torradeflot , M. Trifoglio , E. Valentijn , L. Valenziano , G. Verdoes Kleijn , Y. Wang , N. Welikala , J. Weller , M. Wetzstein , G. Zamorani , J. Zoubian (9) , S. Andreon , M. Baldi , S. Bardelli , A. Boucaud (12) , S. Camera , D. Di Ferdinando , G. Fabbian , R. Farinelli , S. Galeotta , J. Graciá-Carpio , D. Maino , E. Medinaceli , S. Mei (12) , C. Neissner , G. Polenta , A. Renzi , E. Romelli , C. Rosset (12) , F. Sureau , M. Tenti , T. Vassallo , E. Zucca , C. Baccigalupi , A. Balaguera-Antolínez , P. Battaglia , A. Biviano , S. Borgani , E. Bozzo , R. Cabanac , A. Cappi , S. Casas , G. Castignani , C. Colodro-Conde , J. Coupon , H. Courtois (8) , J. Cuby , S. de la Torre , S. Desai , H. Dole , M. Fabricius , M. Farina , P. Ferreira , F. Finelli , P. Flose-Reimberg , S. Fotopoulou , K. Ganga (12) , G. Gozaliasl , I. Hook , E. Keihanen , C. Kirkpatrick , P. Liebing , V. Lindholm , G. Mainetti (13) , M. Martinelli , N. Martinet (14) , M. Maturi , H. Mccracken , R. Metcalf , G. Morgante , J. Nightingale , A. Nucita , L. Patrizii , D. Potter , G. Riccio , A. Sánchez , D. Sapone , J. Schewtschenko , M. Schultheis , V. Scottez , R. Teyssier , I. Tutusaus , J. Valiviita , M. Viel , W. Vriend , L. Whittaker
R. Scaramella
A. da Silva
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A. Derosa
  • Function : Author
J. Dinis
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E. Maiorano
  • Function : Author
M. Maris
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I. Tereno
  • Function : Author
R. Laureijs
  • Function : Author
T. Boenke
  • Function : Author
L. Gaspar Venancio
  • Function : Author
P. Gómez-Álvarez
  • Function : Author
J. Lorenzo Alvarez
  • Function : Author
G. Racca
  • Function : Author
G. Saavedra-Criado
  • Function : Author
J. Schwartz
  • Function : Author
R. Vavrek
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M. Schirmer
  • Function : Author
H. Aussel
  • Function : Author
R. Azzollini
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V. Cardone
  • Function : Author
M. Cropper
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B. Garilli
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B. Granett
  • Function : Author
L. Guzzo
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H. Hoekstra
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K. Jahnke
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T. Kitching
  • Function : Author
T. Maciaszek
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M. Meneghetti
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L. Miller
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R. Nakajima
  • Function : Author
S. Niemi
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F. Pasian
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W. Percival
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S. Pottinger
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M. Sauvage
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M. Scodeggio
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S. Wachter
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A. Zacchei
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N. Aghanim
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A. Amara
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N. Auricchio
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S. Awan
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A. Balestra
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R. Bender
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C. Bodendorf
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D. Bonino
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E. Branchini
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S. Brau-Nogue
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M. Brescia
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G. Candini
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V. Capobianco
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C. Carbone
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R. Carlberg
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J. Carretero
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R. Casas
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F. Castander
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M. Castellano
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S. Cavuoti
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A. Cimatti
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G. Congedo
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C. Conselice
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L. Conversi
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L. Corcione
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A. Costille
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F. Courbin
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H. Degaudenzi
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M. Douspis
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F. Dubath
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C. Duncan
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S. Dusini
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S. Farrens
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P. Fosalba
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M. Frailis
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E. Franceschi
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P. Franzetti
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M. Fumana
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B. Gillis
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C. Giocoli
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A. Grazian
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F. Grupp
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S. Haugan
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W. Holmes
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F. Hormuth
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P. Hudelot
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A. Kiessling
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M. Kilbinger
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R. Kohley
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M. Kümmel
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M. Kunz
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H. Kurki-Suonio
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O. Lahav
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S. Ligori
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P. Lilje
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I. Lloro
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O. Mansutti
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O. Marggraf
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K. Markovic
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F. Marulli
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R. Massey
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S. Maurogordato
M. Melchior
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E. Merlin
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G. Meylan
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J. Mohr
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M. Moresco
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B. Morin
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L. Moscardini
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E. Munari
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R. Nichol
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C. Padilla
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S. Paltani
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J. Peacock
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K. Pedersen
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V. Pettorino
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S. Pires
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M. Poncet
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L. Popa
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L. Pozzetti
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F. Raison
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R. Rebolo
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J. Rhodes
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H.-W. Rix
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M. Roncarelli
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E. Rossetti
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R. Saglia
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P. Schneider
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T. Schrabback
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G. Seidel
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S. Serrano
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C. Sirignano
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G. Sirri
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J. Skottfelt
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L. Stanco
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J. Starck
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P. Tallada-Crespí
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D. Tavagnacco
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A. Taylor
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H. Teplitz
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R. Toledo-Moreo
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F. Torradeflot
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M. Trifoglio
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E. Valentijn
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L. Valenziano
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G. Verdoes Kleijn
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Y. Wang
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N. Welikala
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J. Weller
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M. Wetzstein
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G. Zamorani
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S. Andreon
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M. Baldi
  • Function : Author
S. Bardelli
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S. Camera
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D. Di Ferdinando
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G. Fabbian
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R. Farinelli
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S. Galeotta
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J. Graciá-Carpio
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D. Maino
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E. Medinaceli
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C. Neissner
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G. Polenta
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A. Renzi
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E. Romelli
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F. Sureau
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M. Tenti
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T. Vassallo
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E. Zucca
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C. Baccigalupi
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A. Balaguera-Antolínez
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P. Battaglia
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A. Biviano
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S. Borgani
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E. Bozzo
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R. Cabanac
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A. Cappi
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S. Casas
  • Function : Author
G. Castignani
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C. Colodro-Conde
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J. Coupon
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J. Cuby
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S. de la Torre
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S. Desai
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H. Dole
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M. Fabricius
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M. Farina
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P. Ferreira
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F. Finelli
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P. Flose-Reimberg
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S. Fotopoulou
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G. Gozaliasl
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I. Hook
  • Function : Author
E. Keihanen
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C. Kirkpatrick
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P. Liebing
  • Function : Author
V. Lindholm
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M. Martinelli
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M. Maturi
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H. Mccracken
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R. Metcalf
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G. Morgante
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J. Nightingale
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A. Nucita
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L. Patrizii
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D. Potter
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G. Riccio
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A. Sánchez
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D. Sapone
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J. Schewtschenko
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M. Schultheis
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V. Scottez
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R. Teyssier
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I. Tutusaus
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J. Valiviita
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M. Viel
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W. Vriend
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L. Whittaker
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Abstract

Euclid is a mission of the European Space Agency that is designed to constrain the properties of dark energy and gravity via weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering. It will carry out a wide area imaging and spectroscopy survey (the Euclid Wide Survey: EWS) in visible and near-infrared bands, covering approximately 15 000 deg 2 of extragalactic sky in six years. The wide-field telescope and instruments are optimised for pristine point spread function and reduced stray light, producing very crisp images. This paper presents the building of the Euclid reference survey: the sequence of pointings of EWS, deep fields, and calibration fields, as well as spacecraft movements followed by Euclid as it operates in a step-and-stare mode from its orbit around the Lagrange point L2. Each EWS pointing has four dithered frames; we simulated the dither pattern at the pixel level to analyse the effective coverage. We used up-to-date models for the sky background to define the Euclid region-of-interest (RoI). The building of the reference survey is highly constrained from calibration cadences, spacecraft constraints, and background levels; synergies with ground-based coverage were also considered. Via purposely built software, we first generated a schedule for the calibrations and deep fields observations. On a second stage, the RoI was tiled and scheduled with EWS observations, using an algorithm optimised to prioritise the best sky areas, produce a compact coverage, and ensure thermal stability. The result is the optimised reference survey RSD_2021A, which fulfils all constraints and is a good proxy for the final solution. The current EWS covers ≈14 500 deg 2 . The limiting AB magnitudes (5 σ point-like source) achieved in its footprint are estimated to be 26.2 (visible band I E ) and 24.5 (for near infrared bands Y E , J E , H E ); for spectroscopy, the H α line flux limit is 2 × 10 −16 erg −1 cm −2 s −1 at 1600 nm; and for diffuse emission, the surface brightness limits are 29.8 (visible band) and 28.4 (near infrared bands) mag arcsec −2 .
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Dates and versions

hal-03866201 , version 1 (26-11-2021)
hal-03866201 , version 2 (22-11-2022)

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R. Scaramella, J. Amiaux, Y. Mellier, C. Burigana, C. Carvalho, et al.. Euclid preparation - I. The Euclid Wide Survey. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2022, 662, pp.A112. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/202141938⟩. ⟨hal-03866201v2⟩
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