Magnetic Stimulation as a Therapeutic Approach for Brain Modulation and Repair: Underlying Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms - Biological Adaptation and Ageing Access content directly
Journal Articles International Journal of Molecular Sciences Year : 2023

Magnetic Stimulation as a Therapeutic Approach for Brain Modulation and Repair: Underlying Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

Abstract

Neurological and psychiatric diseases generally have no cure, so innovative nonpharmacological treatments, including non-invasive brain stimulation, are interesting therapeutic tools as they aim to trigger intrinsic neural repair mechanisms. A common brain stimulation technique involves the application of pulsed magnetic fields to affected brain regions. However, investigations of magnetic brain stimulation are complicated by the use of many different stimulation parameters. Magnetic brain stimulation is usually divided into two poorly connected approaches: (1) clinically used high-intensity stimulation (0.5-2 Tesla, T) and (2) experimental or epidemiologically studied low-intensity stimulation (µT-mT). Human tests of both approaches are reported to have beneficial outcomes, but the underlying biology is unclear, and thus optimal stimulation parameters remain ill defined. Here, we aim to bring together what is known about the biology of magnetic brain stimulation from human, animal, and in vitro studies. We identify the common effects of different stimulation protocols; show how different types of pulsed magnetic fields interact with nervous tissue; and describe cellular mechanisms underlying their effects-from intracellular signalling cascades, through synaptic plasticity and the modulation of network activity, to long-term structural changes in neural circuits. Recent advances in magneto-biology show clear mechanisms that may explain low-intensity stimulation effects in the brain. With its large breadth of stimulation parameters, not available to high-intensity stimulation, low-intensity focal magnetic stimulation becomes a potentially powerful treatment tool for human application.
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hal-04478571 , version 1 (26-02-2024)

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Tom Dufor, Ann M Lohof, Rachel M Sherrard. Magnetic Stimulation as a Therapeutic Approach for Brain Modulation and Repair: Underlying Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2023, 24 (16456), ⟨10.3390/ijms242216456⟩. ⟨hal-04478571⟩
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