Enhancing Understanding of the Impact of Climate Change on Malaria in West Africa Using the Vector-Borne Disease Community Model of the International Center for Theoretical Physics (VECTRI) and the Bias-Corrected Phase 6 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Data (CMIP6) - Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat : Expérimentations et Approches Numériques Access content directly
Journal Articles Microbiology Research Year : 2023

Enhancing Understanding of the Impact of Climate Change on Malaria in West Africa Using the Vector-Borne Disease Community Model of the International Center for Theoretical Physics (VECTRI) and the Bias-Corrected Phase 6 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Data (CMIP6)

Papa Fall
Ibrahima Diouf
Abdoulaye Deme
Semou Diouf
  • Function : Author
Doudou Sene
  • Function : Author
Serge Janicot

Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, temperatures are generally conducive to malaria transmission, and rainfall provides mosquitoes with optimal breeding conditions. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of future climate change on malaria transmission in West Africa using community-based vector-borne disease models, TRIeste (VECTRI). This VECTRI model, based on bias-corrected data from the Phase 6 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), was used to simulate malaria parameters, such as the entomological inoculation rate (EIR). Due to the lack of data on confirmed malaria cases throughout West Africa, we first validated the forced VECTRI model with CMIP6 data in Senegal. This comparative study between observed malaria data from the National Malaria Control Program in Senegal (Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, PNLP, PNLP) and malaria simulation data with the VECTRI (EIR) model has shown the ability of the biological model to simulate malaria transmission in Senegal. We then used the VECTRI model to reproduce the historical characteristics of malaria in West Africa and quantify the projected changes with two Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). The method adopted consists of first studying the climate in West Africa for a historical period (1950–2014), then evaluating the performance of VECTRI to simulate malaria over the same period (1950–2014), and finally studying the impact of projected climate change on malaria in a future period (2015–2100) according to the ssp245 ssp585 scenario. The results showed that low-latitude (southern) regions with abundant rainfall are the areas most affected by malaria transmission. Two transmission peaks are observed in June and October, with a period of high transmission extending from May to November. In contrast to regions with high latitudes in the north, semi-arid zones experience a relatively brief transmission period that occurs between August, September, and October, with the peak observed in September. Regarding projections based on the ssp585 scenario, the results indicate that, in general, malaria prevalence will gradually decrease in West Africa in the distant future. But the period of high transmission will tend to expand in the future. In addition, the shift of malaria prevalence from already affected areas to more suitable areas due to climate change is observed. Similar results were also observed with the ssp245 scenario regarding the projection of malaria prevalence. In contrast, the ssp245 scenario predicts an increase in malaria prevalence in the distant future, while the ssp585 scenario predicts a decrease. These findings are valuable for decision makers in developing public health initiatives in West Africa to mitigate the impact of this disease in the region in the context of climate change.

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hal-04384029 , version 1 (20-04-2024)

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Papa Fall, Ibrahima Diouf, Abdoulaye Deme, Semou Diouf, Doudou Sene, et al.. Enhancing Understanding of the Impact of Climate Change on Malaria in West Africa Using the Vector-Borne Disease Community Model of the International Center for Theoretical Physics (VECTRI) and the Bias-Corrected Phase 6 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Data (CMIP6). Microbiology Research, 2023, 14 (4), pp.2148-2180. ⟨10.3390/microbiolres14040145⟩. ⟨hal-04384029⟩
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